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Detailed introduction to the working principle of dry battery

Dry cell is a kind of chemical battery that uses paste electrolyte to generate direct current (wet battery is a chemical battery that uses liquid electrolyte). It is a primary battery and is commonly used in daily life and is a light battery. It can be used in many electrical appliances. So what is the working principle of dry batteries?

Common dry batteries are zinc-manganese batteries (or carbon-zinc batteries, dry Leclanchécell).

Ordinary dry batteries are mostly manganese-zinc batteries, with a positive carbon rod in the middle, a mixture of graphite and manganese dioxide outsourcing, and a layer of fiber mesh outside. The net is coated with a thick electrolyte paste composed of ammonia chloride solution and starch, and a small amount of preservatives.

Electrode principle of alkaline zinc manganese dry battery

The important working principle of dry battery is that the oxidation-reduction reaction is realized in a closed loop! (It is very similar to the original battery, which is to convert chemical energy into electrical energy)

The electrode reaction formula of alkaline zinc manganese dry battery is: Zn+2MnO2+2NH4Cl=ZnCl2++Mn2O3+2NH3+H2O

The cylinder made of metal zinc skin is the negative electrode. The discharge of the battery is the electrolysis reaction of ammonia chloride and zinc. The charge released is conducted by graphite to the positive electrode carbon rod. The electrolysis reaction of zinc will release hydrogen gas, and this gas will be renewed. Manganese dioxide mixed with graphite is used to increase the internal resistance of the battery to absorb hydrogen. However, if the battery continues to work or is used for too long, the manganese dioxide will be too late or nearly saturated and unable to absorb it. At this time, the battery will lose its use due to too much internal resistance and too little output current. However, if the battery is heated or left for a period of time, the accumulated hydrogen gas inside it will be heated or slowly released. Manganese dioxide has also been reduced and recovered, and the battery will have vitality again!


Dry batteries are primary batteries in chemical power sources and are a kind of disposable batteries. Because the electrolyte of this kind of chemical power device is a kind of non-flowable paste, it is called dry battery, which is related to the battery with flowable electrolyte. Dry batteries are not only suitable for flashlights, semiconductor radios, tape recorders, cameras, electronic clocks, toys, etc., but also for various fields in the national economy such as national defense, scientific research, telecommunications, navigation, aviation, and medicine.



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