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What is the working principle of dry battery? What is the voltage of a dry battery?

Working principle of dry battery

Dry battery is a kind of primary battery in chemical power supply. It is a kind of disposable battery. It uses carbon rod as the positive electrode and zinc cylinder as the negative electrode to convert chemical energy into electrical energy to supply external circuits. In the chemical reaction, because zinc is more active than manganese, zinc loses electrons and is oxidized, while manganese gets electrons and is reduced. Dry batteries are not only suitable for flashlights, semiconductor radios, tape recorders, cameras, electronic clocks, toys, etc., but also for various fields in the national economy such as national defense, scientific research, telecommunications, navigation, aviation, and medicine.

Ordinary dry batteries are mostly manganese-zinc batteries, with a positive carbon rod in the middle, a mixture of graphite and manganese dioxide outside, and a layer of fiber mesh outside. The net is coated with a thick electrolyte paste, which consists of ammonia chloride solution and starch, and a small amount of preservatives.

The important working principle of dry battery is that the oxidation-reduction reaction is realized in a closed loop. The electrode reaction formula of alkaline zinc manganese dry battery is: Zn+2MnO2+2NH4Cl=ZnCl2++Mn2O3+2NH3+H2O

The cylinder made of metal zinc skin is the negative electrode. The discharge of the battery is the electrolysis reaction of ammonia chloride and zinc. The charge released is conducted by graphite to the positive electrode carbon rod. The electrolysis reaction of zinc will release hydrogen gas, which is a new gas. Manganese dioxide mixed with graphite is used to increase the internal resistance of the battery to absorb hydrogen.

What is the voltage of a dry battery?

The voltage of the dry battery is an important performance parameter of the dry battery. The voltage value of the dry battery is expressed in volts (V), also known as the potential difference or the potential difference. It is a measure of the energy difference between the positive and negative electrodes of the power lithium battery in the electrostatic field due to the different potentials. The voltage of the battery is a variable process in the environment where the dry battery is located.

Dry battery voltage is divided into three types: standard voltage, open circuit voltage and working voltage. Ordinary batteries are 1.5v, nickel-cadmium or nickel-metal hydride rechargeable batteries are 1.2v, there are also cylindrical lithium-ion batteries 3.7v, storage batteries 2v and so on. Europe also has a zinc Rechargeable battery 1.9v.

1. Open circuit voltage: refers to the voltage of a dry battery in a non-working state. At this time, there is no current flowing. When the battery is fully charged, the potential difference between the positive and negative poles of the battery is usually above 1.6V, and the high can reach 1.725V;

2. Corresponding to the open circuit voltage is the working voltage, that is, the voltage of the dry battery in the working state. At this time, there is current flowing. Because the internal resistance when the current flows is to be overcome, the working voltage is always lower than when it is fully charged. Voltage;

3. Termination voltage: that is, the battery should not continue to be discharged after it is placed at a certain voltage value. It is determined by the structure of the dry cell. The voltage of the dry cell when the discharge is terminated is 0.9V.


4. Standard voltage: In principle, the standard voltage is also called the rated voltage, which refers to the standard value of the potential difference caused by the chemical reaction of the positive and negative materials of the battery. The rated voltage of the dry battery is 1.5V. It can be seen that the standard voltage is the standard work Voltage.




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