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What are the characteristics of lithium ion battery anode materials

Lithium-ion battery anode materials are divided into two categories: carbon materials and non-carbon materials. Carbon material anodes are further classified into natural graphite anodes, artificial graphite anodes, mesophase carbon microspheres, soft carbon anodes, hard carbon anodes, carbon nanotubes, graphene, carbon fibers, etc.; other non-carbon anode materials are mainly divided into silicon-based and its Composite materials, nitride anodes, tin-based materials, lithium titanate, alloy materials, etc.


Graphite is a kind of carbon, and has become the first choice for negative electrode materials due to its light weight and large capacity. Features: ① electrical conductivity; ② thermal conductivity; ③ high temperature resistance; ④ lubricity; ⑤ chemical stability; ⑥ plasticity; ⑦ thermal shock resistance.


Lithium titanate: Lithium titanate is considered to be a safer and longer-life negative electrode material than carbon. Lithium titanate anode has the advantages of fast charge and discharge, many cycles and high safety. Higher safety, the unique physical properties of lithium titanate make it have high safety features that traditional lithium-ion batteries do not have. The lithium titanate negative electrode lithium ion battery has a long life. Because the structure of the lithium titanate negative electrode material itself is stable, and the electrode structure is kept stable during the charge and discharge process, the cycle life of the lithium ion battery is greatly improved.


Lithium titanate batteries have excellent high and low temperature performance and fast charge and discharge functions that traditional lithium ion batteries do not have. Due to the stable structure of the lithium titanate anode material, various electrochemical performance indicators can still maintain the state at room temperature under low temperature environment


Lithium metal anode material: Metal lithium is the alkali metal element with the smallest density. As a lithium-ion battery material, it has a lower oxidation-reduction potential and a higher charge-discharge specific capacity.


Due to its own shortcomings, it is only used in the aerospace and military fields. Although its specific capacity is high, the potential is low, and the energy density of the output voltage is relatively high, the volume change of metal lithium during the charging and discharging process is particularly easy to pierce the diaphragm and form a short circuit, which has serious safety problems.


Carbon nanomaterials: With the advantages of specific surface area, high conductivity, and chemical stability, they have potential applications in new-type lithium-ion batteries. However, carbon nanomaterials alone have the disadvantages of high irreversible capacity and voltage hysteresis as negative electrode materials, and their combined use with other negative electrode materials is currently a more practical choice.


Silicon: Li4.4Si alloy can be formed with lithium, the theoretical specific capacity of lithium storage is as high as 4200mAh/g (more than 10 times the specific capacity of graphite); the lithium insertion potential of silicon is slightly higher than that of graphite, and it is difficult to form lithium dendrites during charging; The reaction activity with the electrolyte is low, and the co-intercalation phenomenon of organic solvents will not occur.



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