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What is the nickel-cobalt-manganese-nickel-cobalt-aluminum ternary lithium battery?

With the widespread popularity of electric vehicles, many friends around have been asking questions about power batteries. Shock is an adventurer. Others can't watch it, but the reliability of their own adventure equipment is the most important. Today, I invited a good friend of mine to talk to you about the power battery.

Hello everyone, I am Xiaomeng, a star member of the power battery family, which is a nickel-cobalt-manganese ternary lithium battery (NCM). The history of our power battery family dates back to 1837. At the time, Robert Anderson of Scotland installed batteries and electric motors on the four-wheeled carriage, transforming it into the world's first electric-powered vehicle. Then why is the electric car appear so late? Mainly due to key issues such as battery life, charging time, and safety. The members of our family were born to solve these problems.
What is the nickel-cobalt-manganese-nickel-cobalt-aluminum ternary lithium battery?

Who are our family members?

More well-known are lithium iron phosphate batteries, lithium titanate batteries, and my brother Nickel-cobalt aluminum ternary lithium battery (NCA). We are made up of different elements, so we have different abilities and characteristics. For example, lithium iron phosphate battery, the best temper is the most stable, but the energy stored in the same volume (energy density) is not enough, which affects the vehicle's endurance. Let's talk about lithium titanate batteries, which can discharge quickly and provide high-power output, which can power buses and tanks. However, its energy density is relatively low, and the cost of raw materials and production is too high, so ordinary electric vehicles are not willing to use it. Finally, we said that our brothers, our temper is also good, the energy density is higher, and can balance the endurance and stability, so it has become the first choice for the current consumer electric vehicle power battery.

What is the nickel-cobalt-manganese-nickel-cobalt-aluminum ternary lithium battery?


What kind of battery do I have?

Scientifically speaking, the ternary lithium battery is a lithium battery in which a nickel-cobalt element is used as a positive electrode material and a manganese or aluminum salt is used to stabilize the chemical structure. My strengths have already been mentioned before, here mainly talk about my temper. Although my temper is OK, if the brain is short-circuited or hit, puncture and barbecue, I will be out of control. So in order not to make me angry, scientists have put a lot of effort into the choice of metal salt and packaging methods.

Choice of stability: aluminum or manganese?

Also as a ternary lithium battery, my brother and I still have different personalities and characteristics. The production of nickel-cobalt aluminum is not only high in process requirements, but also high in cost. However, aluminum can improve the chemical stability of the battery cycle. In the ternary system, the nickel content can be increased to achieve higher battery energy density. However, the crystal structure of nickel-cobalt-aluminum is unstable compared to nickel-cobalt-manganese, and it is easy to collapse at a higher temperature, resulting in thermal runaway, which in turn causes risks. In contrast, although the manganese in my body is more difficult to stabilize more nickel, the current nickel-cobalt-manganese system has a lower energy density, so the endurance performance is not as good as that of nickel-cobalt-aluminum, but the manganese-containing ternary system has better thermal stability. At the same time, the nickel content is relatively small, so it is safer as a power battery.


Choice of packaging method: round or square, soft or hard?

The nickel-cobalt-manganese in my body decomposes when it reaches a certain temperature, releasing oxygen, and oxygen accelerates the reaction of the electrolyte under high temperature, which in turn poses a risk. So I need a more reliable packaging method. There are three main ways of doing this: cylindrical, square and soft.

Cylindrical: The cells are packed in a tightly wound manner, with a more compact internal arrangement and more energy to collect. However, because the cylindrical battery is small, if you want to provide more energy, you need a large number of single cells to form a battery pack, so the consistency of the battery is difficult to guarantee. Improper management of the battery's consistency can lead to a variety of bad results, one of which is the increase in internal resistance that causes the internal temperature of the battery to run out of control.

Square shell type: It can make the inner material roll tightly, and the aluminum shell is not easy to expand, so it is relatively safe. This type of packaging can be equipped with an explosion-proof plug inside. If there is thermal runaway, the expanded air will be released from the fixed direction of the explosion-proof plug, which will not easily affect other cells.

Soft bag type: The structure is packaged in aluminum plastic film. Because there is no space limitation of the aluminum shell, more energy can be loaded under the same volume condition, and the reaction is most direct and thorough. However, because there is no aluminum shell limitation, the battery pack is prone to gas or deformation, which may pose a safety hazard.

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